Although the Mishnah says that Har Habayis was 500 x 500 Amos, this is not what we see on the Har Habayis today. The current complex, which dates back to the days of King Herod is rectangular not square. Furthermore the entire length of Kosel Hamaravi is 488 meters. The most 500 amos can be is 300 meters, (the longest theory for the size of an amoh is that of the Chazon ish, and is 60cm long).
So what happened? it is pretty clear that when Herod rebuilt the Second Beis Hamikdash (as described in the beginning of Bava Basra) he added on wings to the north and south side. Rav Koren is of the opinion that despite this, the kedushah of Har Habayis remained only on the original 500 x 500 amos. For this purpose the "Royal Stoa" was built here to mark the boundary of the original Har Habayis. (Of course in theory a wall could have stood here, but it is clear from Josephus (an eyewitness) that there was no wall here).
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